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Asia’s First Neurofeedback Centre (Established 1995)


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Types of Neurofeedback

The world of neurofeedback is continuously evolving. Over the years, many types of neurofeedback has evolved. This can be confusing for the layman.

  1. Frequency training (the most established)
  2. Infra-low Frequency Training (Othmers)
  3. LENS (Len Ochs)
  4. sLORETA
  5. Z-Score Training
  6. Slow Cortical Potential Training

Frequency Training

Frequency training is the most established form of neurofeedback. Prof. Barry Sterman use frequency training in his neurofeedback. He trains 12 to 15 Hz EEG to increase at the sensory motor cortex region to control epilepsy. Since his discovery, there are many research done using frequency on the effect of neurofeedback on for a wide variety of disorders.

Other researchers have gone on to use other reward frequencies to train the brain, and to train other parts of the brain. This type of neurofeedback can also be used to train to increase or reduce coherence between different regions of the brain.

This type of neurofeedback goes very well with QEEG assessments.

Infra-low Frequency (ILF) Training

The Othmers pioneered Infra-low frequency training. In this type of neurofeedback, the reward frequencies as low as 0.0001 Hz (almost DC) while inhibiting all other frequencies.

ILF training is tricky as it requires careful observation of its effect on the client by the therapist. It also requires the client to be able to report the effects of the training accurately to the therapist. Base on this observations and feedback, the therapist tend adjusts the training to get the desired result.

We find that Asians tend not to respond to this type of neurofeedback. It could be possible that Asians tend not to be as sensitive and expressive as American clients.

The need for careful observation of effect and reporting by clients makes it not suitable for working with low functioning children such as those with severe autism.


LENS stands for Low Energy Neurofeedback System. It was conceived and designed by Len Ochs.

Len Ochs first started a neurofeedback system using light and sound. His method is to measure the brain wave from a location on the head and analyze its dominant EEG. His neurofeedback system will calculate the 3 Hz offset frequency and provide light and sound stimulation at this offset frequency.

In LENS, instead of using light and sound, he uses electromagnetic pulses to stimulate the location at which the brain wave is measured. As there is stimulation by an electromagnetic pulse, the practitioner has to be very careful not to over-stimulate the brain. This can lead to undesirable effects.


sLORETA neurofeedback is similar to frequency training. In this type of neurofeedback, an QEEG cap with 19 or more sensors is usually used. Signals from all the sensors are used to train a specific location as determined by a QEEG analysis.

The need to put on a QEEG cap makes it very cumbersome compared with using just a few sensors for frequency training.

Z-Score Training

Z-Score is new and introduced officially at iSNR conference in 2007-8. At that time, no major study is done regarding its efficacy.

Z-Score training requires the use of a database norm. Sensors are used to measure the brain waves (EEG). The z-Score system tend compares this with a database and provides feedback to help the client shift their EEG profile towards a normal profile.

There are quite a few issues that we are not comfortable with when using z-Score training. Some of these are:

  1. The database “norm”. The only database available for z-Score is the American database which has very few or no Asian subjects. We think that this is not suitable for the Asian population.
  1. It trains towards eyes open norm or eyes close norms only. Many times, we see clients whose eyes open and eyes close QEEG are normal. But when they exert mental effort, the abnormality in their EEG appears.
  2. Training towards the “norm” may benefit those who are low functioning, with EEG characteristics that are way below the norm. However, certain high functioning brains with special talents can also have characteristics far from the “norm”. As such doing a z-Score training may negate these talents.
  3. There are many EEG bands to train. The EEG band that is being targeted for training in Z-Score is unknown.
  4. The threshold is automatically set by the software. We know setting the right threshold makes all the difference. Many practitioners frown on auto-threshold settings.

Slow Cortical Potential or DC Training

Slow cortical potential training is similar to that of ILF training by the Othmers. It trains the slowly changing electrical potential at specific locations on the head. This method of training is not widely use. But research indicated that it is a promising training modality.

Not all Neurofeedback are the same….

There are many types of neurofeedback therapy. Some may not be effective for certain conditions.

Find out more about the various types of neurofeedback ….


- an effective non-drug alternative for ADHD treatment

Email us for a copy of these journal articles.

What is Neurofeedback

Types of Neurofeedback



Types of Neurofeedback