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Spectrum Learning


Asia’s First Neurofeedback Centre (Established 1995)


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© 1995 - 2018 Spectrum Learning Pte Ltd All Rights Reserved | Singapore

36 Purvis Street, #02-11, S(188613) SINGAPORE

>Tel: +65-68349476       Email: Jess@spectrumlearning.com.sg


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Tests and Assessments for ADHD

Most clinicians do not bother about the causes as diagnosis is based on behavioral symptoms. As such, most interventions are also behavioral in nature, such as training them to manage their time, counseling to try to change their behavior and other behavior modification strategies. Another common intervention is to treat the symptoms using medication.

At Spectrum Learning, we have been investigating into the possible causes of ADHD since 1995. Our investigations essentially focus on the brain and biological factors. No one else in this region does such elaborate investigation to find out the causes and aggravating factors for your child.

ADHD is essentially a brain or neuro-developmental condition. However, very few practitioners look into the brain. Educators certainly are not trained to examine the brain. At spectrum learning, we use advance technology to look into the brain and cutting edge laboratory tests to find the possible causes or aggravating factors for your child’s condition.

We have found that many factors that can lead to symptoms of ADHD. Some of the common ones include:

  1. Head injuries
  2. An episode of seizure or fits especially when young. This can lead to damage of the neural circuitry, resulting in symptoms of ADHD or learning difficulties.
  3. Exposure to toxic elements such as Lead and Mercury
  4. Numerous types of nutritional deficiencies and imbalances. For example, children with calcium and magnesium deficiencies can exhibit strong symptoms of ADHD.
  5. Excessive fast metabolism.
  6. Food allergies or intolerance, and many more

These are some of the many factors that can affect the way in which children’s brain circuits are connected.

To investigate other possible causes, we recommend a variety of tests. The tests that we recommend usually depends on the condition of the child. Typically we recommend QEEG (Brain Mapping) and hair analysis (HTMA) for ADHD clients. But other tests may be required if the condition is more severe.

Brain factors:

We routinely do a Brain Mapping or QEEG to determine neuro-developmental causes. The QEEG will reveal which parts of the brain are hyperactive, which parts shuts down, which parts are sluggish and how it is functioning.

Brain mapping or QEEG is an amazing imaging technology that allows use to see what goes on in the brain in a very safe and non-invasive manner. The information gathered can reveal how the brain circuits are connected and many aspects of brain function.

We use the brain mapping assessment to determine which location(s) of the brain is/are causing the ADHD symptoms. This information will help greatly in therapy later on, as it determines what protocols will be suitable for the ADHD individual.

At Spectrum Learning, we have discovered a variety of QEEG profiles that can lead to the same ADHD behavior symptom. Differences in the QEEG profile means that the causes of their ADHD behaviors are different. This also means that the intervention or treatment will be different for the different subtypes of ADHD. With this information, we can design specific training protocols for each client.

With QEEG, we can also determine if medication will be suitable for the client. ADHDs with certain QEEG profiles do not respond well to the usual stimulant medication. Below are some of the types of ADHDs. These require different types of intervention or training program.

Examples of some of the ADHD subtypes:

A) Excessive Beta subtype

Above is the Brain Mapping of a child diagnosed with ADHD. He has behavioral problems in school and at home. The QEEG shows that he has excessive Beta at his right frontal site (F4). He is very driven and disruptive.

B) Excessive Theta subtype of ADHD

The diagram on the left shows a child diagnosed with ADHD. The QEEG shows that he is the excessive Theta at the mid-frontal (Fz). He is hyperactive, procrastinates, disorganized and lack motivation.

C) Excessive Delta subtype of ADHD

The diagram on the left shows a child diagnosed with ADHD. The QEEG shows that he has excessive Delta at the frontal sites (f3,Fz and F4). He is very restless, sleepy, inattentive and passive. He is also not motivated.

D) ADHD with motor tics

The EEG strip chart above shows that of a 9 year old boy diagnosed with ADHD with motor tics. The EEG shows that there is excessive Beta at the frontal sites before every motor tic. The QEEG analysis shows that this boy has both excessive Beta at the frontal and excessive Theta at the mid-frontal.

Each of these subtypes have similar behavioral symptoms but requires different types of intervention. Once we have determined the type of ADHD our client is, we can design a specific neurofeedback program plus other therapies. This individualized training program leads to better results.

The profiles we know are from both our in-house research and those from other research centers around the world.

Biological Factors:

We have a variety of tests to determine factors that are affecting the brain function and development. We are the only ones in this region that does this. Many centers claim to look for “root” causes, but do only educational assessments or psychometric tests. Educational assessments and psychometric tests usually assess the degree of severity of the behavioral problems that we see. It does not tell us the causes.

For ADHD, we usually recommend doing a hair tissue mineral analysis (HTMA). We have been doing this since 1995 and see several profiles for ADHD and related problems. We may recommend other tests such as urine and blood tests as required for other factors.

Two of the most important causes or aggravating factors for ADHD that we have found are exposure to toxic elements and nutritional imbalances. These are often overlooked by many practitioners working with children with ADHD. If these are causes and aggravating factors, they must be addressed sufficiently so that the child can improve significantly.

Toxic elements:

Toxic elements are very common these days due to global environmental pollution. Even people in a clean and green Singapore are exposed to toxic elements. Our years of experience showed that many in Singapore are exposed to Mercury due to excessive consumption of fish and seafood. Excessive mercury accumulation can lead to symptoms of inattentive subtype of ADHD. Exposure to Lead can also lead to hyperactive symptoms of ADHD. In Singapore, we find that those who swim regularly tend to have higher levels of Lead and Copper in their hair tissue.

We find Lead exposure to be common among children from third world or developing countries in this region. We have tested many children from countries such as Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, India and Bangladesh. We find that exposure to lead is very common. These children who are exposed to this toxic element are very hyperactive and some are aggressive.

Another source of toxic exposure in Singapore is plastic toys from China. The Consumer Association of Singapore did tests on toys that they bought from various shops in Singapore. In 2010 CASE published that they have found that most of the toys from China bought off the retail shelves have Lead and Cadmium that is above the allowable limits.


HTMA of a hyperactive 3 year old Male with severe toxic exposure (Indonesia)

We see a high correlation between the HTMA profile and behavioral symptoms. Many are unaware that they are exposed to toxic elements. Children and pregnant women are most susceptible to such exposure. A simple hair analysis can help you to verify this. Make sure you and your children are not exposed to toxic elements!

Nutritional imbalances/deficiencies:

Hair analysis (HTMA) can also reveal important information about nutritional factors that affect ADHD children. Many underestimate the importance of nutrition and its crucial role in brain development. We follow research developments in the field of nutritional neuroscience closely and have done many successful interventions in this field since 1995.

HTMA will reveal the nutritional profile of your child. From this profile, we can determine his/her dietary habits quite accurately and whether he/she has a digestive or absorption problem.

We find many children are deficient in magnesium (Mg) due to low intake of green vegetables. Magnesium deficiency can lead to restless behaviors typical with ADHDs. It can also lead to poor sleep quality which affects brain development. A deficiency in both Magnesium and Calcium has a high correlation with ADHD behaviors.


The chart on the left is from a child diagnosed with ADHD. The HTMA shows that he:

From the above profile, it is clear that this child is taking too much salty food and not drinking enough water. The high potassium indicates that he can be taking too much foods high in potassium or is having a chronic inflammation.

There are quite a few HTMA profiles that correlates with ADHD. As such the type of supplements that they should take will be different. We find that taking the right type of nutritional supplements can help to reduce the symptoms of ADHD significantly.

With information from HTMA, we can design a dietary and nutritional plan for him to correct his nutritional imbalances so as to help him overcome his ADHD condition.

Excessive intake of supplements:

Taking excessive amounts of any nutritional supplements is also not recommended. Many ADHDs are given high does of Omega 3 supplements over a long period of time. This can deplete certain types of amino acids and lead to mental fatigue and lethargy. Too much of a good thing can be harmful. We always advise moderation in foods and supplements.

A HTMA will be very useful for assessing your child’s nutritional and dietary needs. This will prevent any excessive intake of nutritional supplements.

There are other possible causes that we have investigated such as thyroid function. But it is too length to elaborate here. Contact us for a preview and we can elaborate more.



Finding the Causes

Most clinicians do not bother about the causes as diagnosis is based on behavioral symptoms …   

At Spectrum Learning, we have been investigating the possible causes …

Conventional Tests and Assessments

We provide :

Contact Us -

To find out how you can assess your child for possible causes

Different brain causes:

… we have discovered a variety of QEEG profiles that can lead to the same ADHD behavior symptom …

Find out what brain condition your child has!

Contact us now.

ADHD Tests and Assessments

Brain Mapping - QEEG

Brain Mapping (QEEG) is a safe and non-invasive brain imaging technique. It measures brain waves (EEG) that the brain sends out from at least 19 locations simultaneously.

Careful analysis of these brains waves (EEG) can reveal information on how one is using his/her brain. It can also tell us the maturity of different parts of the brain. It is often used to investigate if there are any hidden seizures.

Read more …

Hair Analysis

The Environmental Protection Agency (USA) has identified hair as the tissue of choice for assessing environmental pollution.

Read more …

Developmental/Behavioral Conditions

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

Tests and Assessments

Test and Assessments Interventions Symptoms & Diagnosis