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Learning Difficulties


Dyslexia is a reading disorder characterised by low reading accuracy, speed and/or comprehension. Individuals with dyslexia often have difficulty relating to language processing such as difficulty identifying or generating rhyming words, learning new words, spelling, and distinguishing between similar letters (b or d) or words (saw vs was).


Dyslexia usually becomes apparent from age 6 to 9. Children with Dyslexia can be intelligent and smart, however do not do well in school.

Symptoms of dyslexia includes the following:
  • Difficulty reading (as compared to age-matched peers)
  • Difficulty remembering meaning and pronunciation of words read/learnt
  • Poor in spelling and comprehension, poor essay writing
  • Headaches and/or dizziness while reading
  • Perform well when quizzed orally but not in written assessments
  • Difficulty completing homework or learning new topics
  • Some have symptoms of attention deficit or distractibility (ADHD comorbidity)

Finding the causes

Brain factors

With 25 years of experience in QEEG profiles, we have identified a variety of neurological causes for dyslexia, which gives rise to its various subtypes. Inactivity in other parts of the brain associated with language functions have also been found to contribute to dyslexic symptoms. QEEG brain mapping provides important information about how one is utilizing his/her brain while on a language task. With this information, we can design a tailored brain exercise program for the individual.

Many conditions can cause symptoms of dyslexia. Through our QEEG brain mapping, we find that some children might have been misdiagnosed. Regardless of whether they are called dyslexic or not, using QEEG, we can find out which brain areas are causing the reading or comprehension problems. With this information, we can design a specific training program to target the problematic areas. This leads to high success in intervention.

Biological factors

Exposure to pollution and nutritional imbalance can affect brain function, learning and behaviour. Research is now beginning to recognize these factors. The following nutritional profile has found to have correlation with dyslexia and/or learning difficulties:

  • Elevated Copper level
  • Deficiency in Iron
  • Imbalanced Zinc/Copper ratio
  • Accumulation of heavy metals such as Mercury
  • Exposure to other toxins
  • Excessive acidity
Tests can be done to identify these problems. Intervention through supplementation and dietary habits could be designed to overcome them.


Dyscalculia (also called math disability or numlexia) is a specific learning disability that negatively affects a person’s ability in learning or comprehending arithmetic. It is akin to dyslexia and includes difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, learning maths facts, among others. Math disabilities can also occur as the result of some types of brain injury, in which case the proper term is acalculia, to distinguish it from dyscalculia which is of innate, genetic or developmental origin.

Although math learning difficulties do occur in children with low IQ, dyscalculia affects people from across the whole IQ range, and sufferers often also have difficulties with time, measurement, and spatial reasoning.


The earliest symptom of dyscalculia to appear is the inability to know, from a brief glance and without counting, how many objects there are in a small group. This is an innate ability, present in human infants from birth.

Children with dyscalculia typically find it difficult to compute the number of objects at a glance, or take significantly longer to identify the correct number as compared to their age-matched peers.

Other symptoms include:
  • Inability to grasp and remember mathematical concepts, rules, formulae, and sequences
  • Difficulty reading analogue clocks
  • Difficulty with conceptualizing time and judging the passing of time
  • Difficulty in estimation of distance or lengths
  • Difficulty differentiating between left and right
  • Poor name or face retrieval
  • Low latent inhibition, i.e., over-sensitivity to noise, smell, light and the inability to tune out, filtering unwanted information or impressions
  • Inability to state which of two numbers is larger (extreme cases)

Finding the causes

Brain factors

At Spectrum Learning, we routinely do a Brain Mapping in order to examine the neuronal activities while the client is performing mental calculations and mathematic problems. Our state-of-the-art brain imaging technique allows us to identify the specific areas of the brain that are giving rise to our client’s learning difficulties.
Studies have shown that Dyscalculia is associated with lesions to the supramarginal and angular gyri at the junction between the temporal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Spectrum Learning’s analysis has found similar results based on our brain mapping techniques.

Biological factors

Deficits in mental processes in children are largely related to unusual brain development that can be caused by trauma or exposure to toxins. Children in particular are susceptible to toxins as their brains develop. With hair analysis (HTMA), we are able to identify any exposure to toxic metals, excess or deficit in nutrition elements. Balancing elements and reducing toxins can also make a significant difference in learning and development. Contact us for hair analysis for a comprehensive report on the nutritional balances and/or toxic exposure in you/ your child.

Contact Us

Find out how you can access your child for possible causes:

Tel: +65 6834 9476


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