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Conditions

Developmental & Behavioural Cases

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condition that affects 8-10% of school-aged children in Singapore. Generally, it manifests as difficulties in paying attention or concentrating and impulsive behaviour. Children affected by ADHD also find difficulty in following instructions and are easily bored or frustrated with tasks. Frequent occurrences of these behaviours interfere with a child’s ability to function in school and at home. Progressively, in adulthood, individuals with ADHD may have difficulty with time management, organizational skills, goal setting, and employment. This often strains friendships and relationships.

Many ADHDs are gifted and intelligent. They can be very creative. However, their inability to focus and stay on task often leads to poor performance and under-achievement. They often find it difficult to complete tests and examinations. This tends to lead to low self-esteem which can spiral into major social and behavioural problems.

Types & Symptoms

Symptoms consistently present for 6 months to a maladaptive degree, and present in two or more settings are a significant indicator of ADHD.

Inactive Type

Short attention spans, and are easily distracted by irrelevant events, with frequent shifts from one uncompleted activity to another. They are also forgetful in daily activities and are unable to listen well.

Hyperactive Type

Have difficulty engaging in quiet leisure activities, often talk excessively and are fidgety. Hyperactive type ADHD in teens may manifest as restlessness.

Impulsive Type

Impatient and find difficulty awaiting their turn, initiate conversations at inappropriate times, and frequently interrupt others, causing disruption.

Finding the causes

Brain factors

At Spectrum Learning, we recognise the various sub-types of ADHD and routinely conduct a QEEG brain mapping to determine the type of ADHD. More importantly, brain mapping allows us to determine how one utilizes his or her brain while engaged in certain tasks such as reading and writing. One of the hallmarks of ADHD is an excess of a type of brain wave called Theta (4-7Hz). QEEG brain mapping will allow us to localise any anomalies in brain activity, and thereafter design a brain exercise program tailored to the specific ADHD profile.

qEEG Case Studies

Listed are different subtypes of ADHD and their respective brain mapping profiles that were identified using qEEG. These different profiles point to different brain-related causes of ADHD. Each of these subtypes have similar behavioural symptoms but require different types of intervention. Once we have determined the type of ADHD our client experiences, we can design a specific and suitable neurofeedback training program. This individualised training program leads to better results.

The profiles we know are from both our in-house research and those from other research centres around the world.

Excessive Beta Subtype

This qEEG profile belongs to a child diagnosed with ADHD. He has behavioural problems in school and at home. The qEEG shows that he has excessive Beta at his right frontal site (F4). He is very driven and disruptive.

Excessive Theta Subtype

Shown is the qEEG profiie of a child diagnosed with ADHD. The qEEG shows that there is excessive Theta at the mid-frontal (Fz). He is hyperactive, procrastinates, disorganised and lacks motivation.

Excessive Delta Subtype

In this qEEG profile of an ADHD boy, our client has excessive Delta at the frontal sites (F3,Fz and F4). He is very restless, sleepy, inattentive and passive. He also lacks motivation.

ADHD with motor tics

The EEG strip chart above shows that of a 9 year old boy diagnosed with ADHD with motor tics. The EEG shows that there is excessive Beta at the frontal sites before every motor tic. The QEEG analysis shows that this boy has both excessive Beta at the frontal and excessive Theta at the mid-frontal.

Biological factors

Beyond inherent brain factors that contribute to symptoms of ADHD, hair tissue mineral analysis (HTMA) is also conducted. This is important as nutritional imbalances can aggravate restless and impulsive behaviour. Listed below are some of the common physical health profiles of ADHD documented by many research papers:

  • Gastrointestinal abnormality
  • Compromised immunity
  • Toxic metal accumulation such as Lead and Mercury
  • Deficiency in fatty acid
  • Deficiency in minerals such as Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc
  • Deficiency in Iron
HTMA can effectively help to identify these problems. Our therapists are trained to provide advice on intervention through supplementation and dietary.